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Fire Water Provision For Tall Buildings

 
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suraj
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 19, 2012 11:45 am    Post subject: Fire Water Provision For Tall Buildings Reply with quote

Fire Water Provision For Tall Buildings<xml><o></o>
1       Contemplation requires to be made for including firewater tank or reservoir for structures<o></o>
2       Every floor should have one outlet for pressurized firewater through one of many risers<o></o>
3       All such risers outlets should terminate somewhere adjacent to fire hose reel location<o></o>
4       Firewater tank should be located below basements or somewhere adjacent to tall structures<o></o>
5       May be more than one tank would be required to cater for firewater demand<o></o>
6       It should be kept in consideration that not more than 4 or 5 floors could be susceptible to fire attack at one time<o></o>
7       This duration should be adequate enough for firefighting personnel to combat fire<o></o>
8       Tall structures may not allow adjacent locations due to various factors involved<o></o>
9       Below structure locations should be investigated with architect, fire officers & past mistakes<o></o>
10  Tall structures more than wind effect & seismic, could be dangerous from fire attack view point<o></o>
11  It is not feasible to have occupants vacate premises in panic<o></o>
12  It is dangerous to vacate using staircase that can result in accidents<o></o>
13  Pressurized water line can be made use of immediately, after fire break<o></o>
14  Control of such line pumping should be from outside building & from standby electric supply distribution boards, since main supply is disconnected during fire<o></o>
15  Pressurised water line could pass through structural slabs so that its static load is anchored, while running pipes concealed by architectural ducts<o></o>
16  Firewater tank should not be used for potable water services<o></o>
17  A separate pimp room should be designed for delivering sound services to combat fire<o></o>
18  On an integrated self contained complex, comprising many such tall structures, externally integrated fire water supply ring main should be provided all times, duly pressurized without fail, with adequate cut off in sections arrangements for maintenance purpose<o></o>
19  Structural & mechanical services coordination is required for all such provisions<o></o>
20  In case, many risers are included within building’s design, all should be interlinked so that water from one could be drawn by other one to efficiently extinguish fire<o></o>
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_________________
Thanks & Warm Regards
IntPE(India)Suraj Singh FIE Civil
Engineering & Arbitration

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suraj
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Joined: 17 Apr 2008
Posts: 2312
Location: NCR Faridabad, E mail suraj_engineer@yahoo.co.uk

PostPosted: Wed Nov 21, 2012 4:57 am    Post subject: Loss Prevention on Buildings/Fire Suppression Reply with quote

Loss Prevention on Buildings/Fire Suppression <xml><o></o>
1       Already noted about firefighting basic provisions on buildings, which accommodate large number of occupants & are prone all times to fire attack<o></o>
2       Though included provisions may not be perfect keeping abreast various circumstances, but yet supportive from prevention view point<o></o>
3       Certain question should be asked by designer pertinent to such issues<o></o>
4       Promoter should also, ask self, whether or not, sole criteria is to make money out of building promotion or to help occupants live safely<o></o>
5       Indeed losses can toll no limits, when life of occupants is made a consideration<o></o>
6       Building could be made howsoever, decorative & attractive provided with all best facilities & appliances, but within minutes, death arrives should loss prevention concept is not integrated with building<o></o>
7       Loss prevention is mandatorily applied on industrial oil projects, where fire is susceptible all times, without any warning, but such projects are never limited on budget considerations<o></o>
8       Tall buildings are used as a product of sale to users/occupant, which consideration inculcates proposition by promoter to produce, deliver & make money with no worry of future safety <o></o>
9       Moreover, premises cannot be sealed during emergency, which application can easily be applied for areas on other projects that accommodate high value data & relevant IT rooms<o></o>
10  Though all occupants intend & wish to use air conditioning throughout, which provision necessitates keep premises closed for an effective conditioning<o></o>
11  Fire is a major element that can bring in heavy losses of material & human involved<o></o>
12  Within minutes, losses can occur, if no loss prevention applied/included<o></o>
13  Smoke detection system can be utilized for areas, which do not require use of fire based appliance<o></o>
14  Smoking within premises internal areas should be avoided, while some chambers in common areas can be allowed for smoking<o></o>
15  Suppression gases such as FM 200 or Inergen can be used in some significant areas that could result in heavy losses, in case of fire break out<o></o>
16  Such areas may not be feasible to be automatically sealed, when fire is broken out, yet, manual activation of gas may be conducted, after closing areas<o></o>
17  Effect of such gases is very positive, since it takes few minutes only to combat fire by reducing oxygen level within fire<o></o>
18  Gas comprises of nitrogen, argon & oxygen effect of which is that during fire, level of oxygen is reduced simultaneously, augmenting carbon dioxide level, which helps maintain  minimum respiration level<o></o>
19  At least data & systems can be saved during fires by sealing area<o></o>
20  Foregoing method has been given for information only, since in residential buildings where large number of occupants live, practically, it may not be possible, but in non residential areas, application can be made successful<o></o>
21  All common circulation areas should be kept all time obstruction free by allowing no material storage, even for temporary purpose<o></o>
22  Where buildings are too close, to building under fire, other building also, shall be susceptible to fire, yet it would assist in evacuation of fire trapped occupant to walk in to no fire building, when links by ordinary walk ways are provided between two buildings at certain levels<o></o>
23  Staircase steps risers & treads should be so proportioned that during their use in emergent situation, no untoward incident occurs, <o></o>
24  People should not avoid using staircase just because riser is too high<o></o>
25  Emergency staircase should be provided riser a maximum of 125 mm & less if possible say 100 mm, so that it can be used even by old people<o></o>
26  Width of stair waist should be considerable, so that  occupants can walk up or down with convenience avoiding falling incidents<o></o>
27  Flight should not contain more than 12 risers without intermediate provisions of landings<o></o>
28  Though, not in practice for varied reasons, on external surfaces adjacent to emergency stairs, to facilitate downwards movement/descending, cat ladders/steps with adequate width can be provided  from top floor to bottom floors at certain locations<o></o>
29  Such steps can immediately, assist fire trapped occupants to exit building line by breaking window stepping in to hold cat step & at least save life by reaching to non fire trapped floor<o></o>

_________________
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IntPE(India)Suraj Singh FIE Civil
Engineering & Arbitration

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suraj
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Joined: 17 Apr 2008
Posts: 2312
Location: NCR Faridabad, E mail suraj_engineer@yahoo.co.uk

PostPosted: Tue Nov 27, 2012 10:43 am    Post subject: Emergencies-Fire & others Reply with quote

Emergencies-Fire & others

  1. Services particularly, required for meeting emergencies can be best utilised, while serving many building same time
  2. I already suggested that plan for making just one tall building shall not be tenable
  3. Once many buildings are require for locating in same area, a mode of mini tall city can be designated, which require common building services
  4. In such cases, network for such major complex can allow dedicated major network pertinent various service
  5. Dedicated stations such as fire fighting tenders can be included as part of such complex
  6. Various other civil amenities can be added such as substations, police stations, medical centre/s, schools & markets etc
  7. Car ports also, multilevel can be added to cater for all such buildings & would be economical in construction as well as, operation
  8. Such integration gives way for larger provisions of budget to head to services such as fire fighting & water supply
  9. All such services require very expensive equipment relating to all services discipline
  10. Water for firefighting required to be available around such buildings in ring main shall successfully support fire fighting quantities of water
  11. It is true that all buildings, when designed duly located distant with considerable gap, shall not be susceptible to fire
  12. Just like considered on oil plants designs that only one or two processing trains may be subject to fire, in case of tall buildings same consideration may apply
  13. Such consideration shall reduce financial loading on all buildings, since provision of one system shall support scope within complex area
  14. Ring main should be so networked that piping moves around complex serving all buildings with ease & allowing dedicated storage in reservoir
  15. In case of monitoring to arrest corrosion on reinforcing bars, cathodic protection could also, be provided on all buildings in a major network to be controlled remotely from a common controls
  16. Anodes may be provided on major & significant columns & shear walls att all levels linked with GI wire/rope around all foundations main bars & at all levels bars
  17. Cathodic provision can assist prolonging buildings life
  18. Calcium nitrite should also be used for piling concrete & also in foundations
  19. In addition to BMS, other loss prevention systems such as earthing & lightening do cause an issue on buildings, which must be provided to requirements
  20. I noted on somewhere that electric substations has been located within building on Burj, that I do not agree with
  21. Better should it be located separately, to arrest mishap, though GIS system might have been employed on switch gears
  22. Many services floors would be required within all tall buildings for continuous functioning to run first class systems, which add to additional design parameters to considerations

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IntPE(India)Suraj Singh FIE Civil
Engineering & Arbitration

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