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suraj
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 14, 2021 11:15 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Insulation Coordination Studies
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Insulation Coordination Studies
1     Studies shall establish that insulation levels of equipment are adequate for probable surges in system with a safety margin.
2     Studies shall also, establish location, number and rating of surge arresters / surge suppressors in system.
3     Both electronic and hard copies shall be submitted to company / client, as part of final documentation.
4     As Power Transmission System nominal voltages increase, expected lightning as well as, switching over voltages also, increases.
5     One way of handling these over voltages is to design insulation strength of equipment and switchgear to withstand expected over voltages with sufficient safety margin. This directly relates to higher cost of equipment.
6     Other way is to reduce expected over voltages at equipment of substations to a possible level.
7     Lightning Arrester plays a major role in reducing these over voltages to allowable limits under surge conditions.
8     Rating and placement of Lightning Arresters has to be decided properly.
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suraj
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 12:41 am    Post subject: 15.09.2021-Bharat India 54th Engineers Day 2021-Engineers for Skill Development & Employment in combating COVID” Reply with quote

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suraj
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 10:20 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Substation Earthing System ( Grounding System ) – Earthing Mat
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Substation Earthing System ( Grounding System ) – Earthing Mat
1     Substation earthing system comprises of a grid (earth mat) formed by a horizontal buried conductors.
2     Grounding system in substation is very important. Functions of grounding systems or earth mat include:
a     Ensure safety to personnel in substations against electrical shocks.
b     Provide ground connection for connecting neutrals of stat connected transformer winding to earth ( neutral earthing )
c     Discharge overvoltages from overhead ground wires or lightning masts to earth. To provide ground path for surge arresters.
d     Provide a path for discharging charge, between phase and ground by means of earthing switches.
e     To provide earth connections to structures and other non-current carrying metallic objects in sub-station (equipment earthing).
1     In addition to such a grid below ground level, earthing spikes (electrodes) are driven into ground. They are connected electrically to earth grid, equipment bodies, structures, neutrals etc. All these are connected to station earthing system by earthing strips.
2     If switchyards have a soil of low resistivity, earth resistance of earthing system would be low. If soil resistivity is high, mesh rods are laid at closer spacing.
3     More electrodes are inserted in ground
4     Earth Resistance Value
5     Value of earth resistance of ground system determines voltage rise of various earthed points during earth fault.
6     If earth fault current is I, earth resistance is R, voltage rise under short circuit condition would be V= IR.
7     Permissible potential rise and maximum possible earth fault current set a limit on maximum value of earth resistance.
8     To achieve earth resistance within specified limits, enough number of earth spikes and sufficient surface area of earth grid and closer ground mesh rods are necessary.
9     Touch potential and earth potential in switchyard under whatever earth fault condition should be within safe limits.



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suraj
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 10:41 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Substation Earthing
Cables
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Substation Earthing
Cables
1     In electrical power distribution, armoured cable usually means steel wire armoured cable (SWA), which is a hard-wearing power cable, designed for supply of mains electricity.
2     It is one of a number of armoured electrical cables – which include 11 kV Cable and 33 kV Cable – and is found in underground systems, power networks and cable ducting.
3     Aluminium can also, be used for armouring, and historically iron was used.
4     Armouring is also, applied to submarine communications cables.
5     Typical construction of SWA cable can be broken down as follows:
Conductor:
a     Consists of plain stranded copper (cables are classified to indicate degree of flexibility.
b     Class 2 refers to rigid stranded copper conductors, as stipulated by British Standard BS EN 60228:2005)
Insulation:
a     Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is used in a number of power cables, because it has good water resistance and excellent electrical properties.
b     Insulation in cables ensures that conductors and other metal substances do not come into contact with each other.
Bedding:
a     Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bedding is used to provide a protective boundary, between inner and outer layers of cable.
Armour:
a     Steel wire armour provides mechanical protection, which means cable can withstand higher stresses, be buried directly and used in external or underground projects.
b     Armouring is normally connected to earth and can sometimes be used, as circuit protective conductor ("earth wire") for equipment supplied by cable.
Sheath:
a     A black PVC sheath holds all components of cable together and provides additional protection from external stresses.
Notes
1     PVC version of SWA cable, described above, meets requirements of both British Standard BS 5467 and International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 60502.
2     It is known as SWA BS 5467 Cable and it has a voltage rating of 600/1000 V.
3     SWA cable can be referred to more generally as mains cable, armoured cable, power cable and booklet armoured cable.
4     Name power cable, however, applies to a wide range of cables, including 6381Y, NYCY, NYY-J and 6491X Cable.
5     Steel wire armour is only used on multicore versions of cable. A multicore cable, as name suggests is one where there are a number of different cores.
6     When cable has only one core, aluminium wire armour (AWA) is used instead of steel wire.
7     This is because aluminium is non-magnetic.
8     A magnetic field is produced by current in a single core cable.
9     This would induce an electric current in steel wire, which could cause overheating.

LV Power and Control Cables  
1     XLPE insulated copper cables shall be provided, as required to distribute LV power, and for control, protection and annunciation requirements.
2     Contractor shall route cables in concrete troughs, trays, conduits, raceways, underground trenches etc. as detailed on cable layout drawings.
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suraj
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 11:41 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Motor Starting
Emergency Diesel Generator
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Motor Starting
Emergency Diesel Generator
1     An emergency diesel engine driven generator, with a minimum rating of 630KVA shall be provided to cater to loads of phase emergency loads and be located in VSDS substation for PH.
2     Contractor shall size and verify rating, based on various loads connected to emergency bus.
3     An emergency diesel engine driven generator, with a minimum rating of 350KVA shall be provided to cater to loads of phase-II emergency loads in phase area.
4     It shall be located in VSDS substation for PH.
5     Contractor shall size and verify rating, based on various loads connected to emergency bus.

Bulk Materials
1     Contractor shall provide, as required Push Button Stations, receptacles (415V and 230V), local control panels, junction boxes etc. as necessary for each system.
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 11:43 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Scope at Remote PLANT Substation and NCC
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Scope at Remote PLANT Substation and NCC
1     Contractor shall provide necessary facilities at Remote End for Tele Signaling.

Coordination with PLANT and Electrical Department
1     Design, installation and commissioning of all 220KV equipment (including control and signaling to PLANT substation) shall require coordination / approval of company / client, PLANT and electrical department.
2     Contractor shall take responsibility / lead in obtaining approval for interface facilities with PLANT and electrical department.
3     Company / client shall facilitate coordination and interface by a letter of introduction.
4     Contractor shall engineer, connect and configure signals for monitoring and controlling FACILITY pertaining to this project only.
5     Twenty percent (20%) quantity of spares shall be connected and configured as spares as, detailed within specification provided.
6     Provision for expansion shall be made for connecting an additional signals (future)
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suraj
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 11:45 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Harmonic Filters
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Harmonic Filters
Harmonic filters shall be provided, based on power system study requirements, which shall consist of:
1     One set to cater to requirements of existing 33KV network, connected to existing 33KV switchgear (in modified portion), further split into two groups.
2     Each group shall be connected to individual bus section.
3     One set to cater to requirements of new 33KV network and connected to new 33KV switchgear.
4     It shall be further split into two groups, each group should be connected to individual bus section.
5     Filters shall require a minimum of manual intervention and should be designed for minimum energy losses.
6     Harmonic filter package shall be suitable for phase (existing).
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 11:51 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Teleprotection
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Teleprotection
1     A secure and uninterrupted supply of electricity is only possible with help of comprehensive protection and control functions, which ensure reliable operation of power system.
2     As complexity and ratings of electrical power systems increase, so do also, demands on protective devices and systems, which have to protect them from damage and preserve power system stability.
3     Protection relays in conjunction with communication links provide best possible means of selectively isolating faults on HV lines, transformers, reactors and other important items of electrical plants.
4     To prevent system from failure and damage, teleprotection system has to selectively disconnect faulty part by transferring command signals, within shortest possible time.

Tele Protection System and RTU
1     Existing tele protection system (SWT-3000), in existing 33 KV switchgear room, shall be expanded to be made dual redundant.
2     Existing tele protection system in PLANT shall be expanded to be made dual redundant.
3     A new dual redundant tele protection system shall be provided for new incoming cables in new 33 KV switchgear room and new 220 KV switchgear room.
4     Existing RTU and existing C30 controller, located in existing 33KV switchgear room shall be expanded to cater for additional feeders.
5     Tele protection systems at PLANT, existing 33KV, new 33 KV and new 220KV are to be integrated into a network via redundant, dedicated optical fibre cables.
6     Network shall be configured, such that functions of certain redundant tele protection unit that fails should automatically, be assumed by another tele protection unit, within network.
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 15, 2021 12:01 pm    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Tele Signal Transfer
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification
Tele Signal Transfer
1     They transmit on frequency channels in VHF and UHF bands. ... Television transmitters use one of two different technologies: analog, in which picture and sound are transmitted by analog signals modulated onto radio carrier wave and digital, in which picture and sound are transmitted by digital signals.
2     A television transmitter is a transmitter that is used for terrestrial (over-air) television broadcasting.
3     It is an electronic device that radiates radio waves that carry a video signal, representing moving images, along with a synchronized audio channel, which is received by television receivers ('televisions' or 'TVs') belonging to a public audience, which display image on a screen.
4     A television transmitter, together with broadcast studio, which originates content is called a television station.
5     Television transmitters must be licensed by governments and are restricted to a certain frequency channel and power level.
6     They transmit on frequency channels in VHF and UHF bands.
7     Since radio waves of these frequencies travel by line of sight, they are limited by horizon to reception distances of 40–60 miles, depending on height of transmitter station.
8     Television transmitters use one of two different technologies: analog, in which picture and sound are transmitted by analog signals modulated onto radio carrier wave, and digital, in which picture and sound are transmitted by digital signals.
9     Original television technology, analog television, began to be replaced in a transition beginning in 2006 in many countries with digital television (DTV) systems.
10     These transmit pictures in a new format called HDTV (high definition television), which has higher resolution and a wider screen aspect ratio than analog.
11     DTV makes more efficient use of scarce radio spectrum bandwidth, as several DTV channels can be transmitted in same bandwidth, as a single analog channel.
12     In both analog and digital television, different countries use several incompatible modulation standards to add video and audio signals to radio carrier wave.
Tele signal Transfer
1     Existing communications system shall be extended and expanded in order to provide voice and data links from new 220 KV substation to NCC.
2     A new SDH node, PDH and PCM multiplex and supervisory system at new 220 KV substation, connected to PLANT via redundant optical fiber cables shall be provided.
3     Telephone and hotline telephone facility at new 220 KV substation shall be provided.
4     Existing SDH and associated equipment at PLANT and NCC shall be expanded, including software upgrades, so as to cater for new and expansion of tele signaling and telecommunication requirements or a new, SDH equipment, should be provided.
5     Necessary software and hardware modifications, including map work, network display etc. with additions shall be provided at NCC for new substation.
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PostPosted: Thu Sep 16, 2021 1:22 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+ Reply with quote

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