|Dr. N. Subramanian
Joined: 21 Feb 2008
Location: Gaithersburg, MD, U.S.A.
|Posted: Fri Dec 02, 2011 4:54 pm Post subject: Oresund Bridge
|Oresund Bridge Connecting Sweden and Denmark
The ěresund or Íresund Bridge is a combined twin-track railway and dual carriageway bridge-tunnel across the ěresund strait.
In 1991, the Danish and Swedish governments signed an agreement to establish a fixed link across the ěresund. The agreement was ratified by the two countries' parliaments in August of the same year. ěresundskonsortiet, a joint venture between A/S ěresund and Svensk-Danska Brof÷rbindelsen SVEDAB AB, constructed the permanent link between Sweden and Denmark. The project cost more than DKK12 billion and comprises a 16.4km (10-mile) link between Copenhagen and Malm÷ consisting of a tunnel, a bridge and an artificial island.
Aerial Photo of ěresund Bridge. In the foreground is Copenhagen Airport on the island Amager, to the left of the bridge is the Danish island Saltholm, and in the background the bridge connects to Malm÷.
In May 2003 the ěresund Bridge won the IABSE Outstanding Structure Award. The judges commended the project for its innovative planning, design and construction management as well as its compliance with the time schedule, budget and tough environmental requirements.
ěresund link bridge approval
Through the agreement, the two governments each hold a 50% stake in ěresundskonsortiet. The project was officially started when The Danish Ministry of Transport approved the general design, alignment and environmental conditions for the ěresund Link on Danish territory. Once completed in March 2000, the bridge was handed over to the client ěresundsbro Konsortiet by the contractor Sundlink. In April, the tunnel and the artificial island Peberholm were handed over to the client ěresundsbro Konsortiet by the contractors ěTC and ÍMJV. The ěresund Bridge was inaugurated in July 2000.
The project originally began in March 1991 when the Danish and Swedish governments signed the agreement. In January 1992, ěresundskonsortiet was formed through a partnership agreement. In September 1993 the first turf was cut, and in June 1994, the Swedish government approved the construction of the link on Swedish territory. From July to November 1995, ěresundskonsortiet signed contracts with all the necessary companies for the construction. By March 1999, the first vehicle was driven through the tunnel, and by December, the first rail track between Malm÷ and Copenhagen was completed.
The whole project consisted of the construction of a bridge, a tunnel and an artificial island between the two countries that stretched 16.4km. The tunnel construction contract had a value of DKK3.98 billion. The contract for the artificial island had a value of DKK1.4 billion and the contract for the construction of the high bridge and the two, two-level approach bridges with the motorway on the upper level and the railway on the lower level had a value of DKK6.3 billion.
The ěresund Bridge is composed of a high bridge over the Flintrńnnan navigation channel and two approach bridges. The high bridge has the longest cable-stayed main span in the world (490m) for both road and rail traffic.
The bridge two-level superstructure is fabricated from steel and concrete. The steel girder supports the upper deck, which accommodates the motorway, and the lower deck where the railway is located. The tracks are placed in a concrete trough along the approach bridges, which changes to a steel deck on the high bridge.
Hydraulic systems supplier Enerpac supplied CLR Series double-acting jacks to place the bridge elements of the lower deck on their bearings. The jacks have also been used to support the upper deck.
The high bridge has the longest cable-stayed main span in the world for both road and rail traffic.
The western part of the ěresund Link is a 4km-long tunnel between the artificial island of Peberholm and the artificial peninsula at Kastrup. The tunnel is the longest immersed tube tunnel for both road and rail traffic in the world. It consists of 20 tunnel elements beneath the Drogden Channel.
The elements, manufactured in Copenhagen's North Harbor, are 577ft long and weigh up to 55,000t each. Each element consists of eight segments of 72ft each. Enerpac's CLL lock nut jacks were used to move the inside walls of the tunnel mould and lift these segments for transportation from the Copenhagen factory to the construction site.
Artificial island and peninsula
The artificial island of Peberholm was built in order to transfer the traffic from the immersed tunnel up onto the approach bridge. Peberholm is approx. 4km long and mainly made up of dredged material from the ěresund seabed. A total of 1.6 million m│ of stone and 7.5 million m│ of sand and dredged material were required for its completion.
The artificial island of Peberholm was built in order to transfer the traffic from the immersed tunnel up onto the approach bridge
The artificial peninsula at Kastrup, which accommodates the portal of the ěresund tunnel, was constructed by ěresund Marine Joint Venture (ěMJV). It covers 0.9km▓ and is made up of dredged material from the ěresund seabed.
The first pylon leg reached its full height on 18 January 1999.
The ěresund Line connects to the Continental Line at Lockarp, south of Malm÷.
The pontoon crane Svanen places the last bridge section on 14 August 1999.
The toll station, situated at the Swedish side of the link, has eleven lanes in each direction, nine of which are equipped with card automats and/or manned by service personnel.
ěresundskonsortiet signed a contract with ěresund Tunnel Contractors for the construction of the immersed tunnel with two lanes in each direction, a double-track railway and a service tunnel. The tunnel contractors were a consortium consisting of NCC AB (SE), Dumez-GTM SA (F), John Laing Ltd (UK), E. Pihl & S°n (DK), and Boskalis Westminster (NL).
A contract was also made for the dredging and construction of the artificial island with Íresund Marine Joint Venture, consisting of Per Aarsleff A/S (DK), Ballast Nedam Dredging b.v. (NL) and Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co (US).
ěresundskonsortiet also signed a contract with Sundlink Contractors, Skanska AB (SE), H°jgaard & Schultz (DK), Monberg & Thorsen (DK), Hochtief AG (Germany), for the high bridge and the two, two-level approach bridges with the motorway on the upper level and the railway on the lower level.
It is interesting to note that a similar arrangement of Artificial Island and a bridge and tunnel combination has been adopted earlier in the Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel (I-664), in USA
The curving 3.2-mile-long South Trestle is in the foreground. That connects to the South Island, where the south tunnel portal is, for the 4,800-foot long tunnel. The North Island and Newport News are in the distance. Starting at the left edge of the photo is the Newport News Marine Terminal.
Photo by Virginia Department of Transportation.
Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel (I-664), looking south from near the tip of Newport News.
In the foreground, you can see the North Approach Bridge, and the Small Boat Harbor to the left. The North Approach Bridge connects to the North Island (actually a peninsula) where the north portal of the tunnel is. In the distance, you can see the South Island and the South Trestle.
Photo by Virginia Department of Transportation.
More info about this bridge built in 1992 at: