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The Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai, China

 
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Dr. N. Subramanian
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 20, 2012 2:54 pm    Post subject: The Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai, China Reply with quote

The Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai, Chinaa


Location      88 Century Avenue, Pudong District, Shanghai 200121, China
Completed      1999
Height
Architectural      420.5 m
Tip      421.5 m
Roof      370.0 m
Top floor      348.4 m
Observatory      340.1 m
Global Ranking      #12 tallest in the World
Regional Ranking      #9 tallest in Asia (excluding the Middle East)
National Ranking      #6 tallest in China
City Ranking      #2 tallest in Shanghai
Technical details
Floor count      88 (+3 basement floors)
Floor area      289,500 m2
Elevators      61
Design and construction
Architect      Adrian Smith at SOM
Structural engineer      Skidmore Owings & Merrill, Chicago (SOM)

The Jin Mao Tower ( literally "Golden Prosperity Building") is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in the Lujiazui area of the Pudong district of Shanghai, People's Republic of China. It contains offices and the Shanghai Grand Hyatt hotel. Until 2007 it was the tallest building in the PRC, the fifth tallest in the world by roof height and the seventh tallest by pinnacle height. Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, it is part of the Pudong skyline.

Structure


The Shanghai World Financial Center (left) and the Jin Mao Tower (right)
The building is located on a 24 000 m plot of land near the Lujiazui metro station and was built at an estimated cost of 530 million USD. It is a perfect combination of traditional Chinese architectural style and the world's modern architectural technology.

It was designed by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Its postmodern form, whose complexity rises as it ascends, draws on traditional Chinese architecture such as the tiered pagoda, gently stepping back to create a rhythmic pattern as it rises. Like the Petronas Towers in Malaysia, the building's proportions revolve around the number 8, associated with prosperity in Chinese culture. The 88 floors (93 if the spire floors are counted) are divided into 16 segments, each of which is 1/8 shorter than the 16-storey base. The tower is built around an octagon-shaped concrete shear wall core surrounded by 8 exterior composite supercolumns and 8 exterior steel columns. Three sets of 8 two-story high outrigger trusses connect the columns to the core at six of the floors to provide additional support.

Foundation
The foundations rest on 1,062 high-capacity steel piles driven 83.5 m deep in the ground to compensate for poor upper-strata soil conditions. At the time those were the longest steel piles ever used in a land-based building. The piles are capped by a 4 m-thick concrete raft 19.6 m underground. The basement's surrounding slurry wall is 1 m thick, 36 m high and 568 m long, and composed of 20,500 m of reinforced concrete.

Amazing view from top of  the atrium, looking below

Wind and Earthquake Resistance

The building employs an advanced structural engineering system of wind and earthquake engineering which fortify it against typhoon winds of up to 200 km/h (with the top swaying by a maximum of 75 cm) and earthquakes of up to 7 on the Richter scale. The steel shafts have shear joints that act as shock absorbers to cushion the lateral forces imposed by winds and quakes, and the swimming pool on the 57th floor is said to act as a passive damper.

Advanced glass Curtain Wall

The latticework cladding is made of aluminium alloy pipes


The tower exterior employs an advanced glass curtain wall, which is crisscrossed by complex latticework cladding, made of aluminum alloy pipes, to remove  pollution. Its fire and life systems are different from many other skyscrapers for their design to allow people to rescue themselves rather than waiting for others to come to their rescue. The building is also equipped with an excellent vertical transport system, with features like less than 35-second time for people to wait for an elevator and direct access to the office sections, etc. Its intelligent systems manage all functions and sections, and there is Internet access to every office desk and guest room. All functional equipments and facilities in the building are most advanced, making it a milestone in architectural history.

Official dedication was August 28, 1998, a date also chosen with the number 8 in mind. The building was fully operational in 1999.

The Jin Mao Tower is owned by the China Jin Mao Group Co. Ltd (formerly China Shanghai Foreign Trade Centre Co. Ltd). It reportedly has a daily maintenance cost of US$121,000

Source and more details at:

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jin_Mao_Tower
  • http://skyscrapercenter.com/shanghai/jin-mao-building/
  • http://ctbuh.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=PuiTpra1DKE%3d&tabid=486&language=en-US/
  • http://ctbuh.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=9Wv9upvzgCI%3d&tabid=486&language=en-US
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