|Dr. N. Subramanian
Joined: 21 Feb 2008
Location: Gaithersburg, MD, U.S.A.
|Posted: Tue Dec 04, 2012 6:49 pm Post subject: Trump International Hotel & Tower
|Trump International Hotel & Tower
Country United States
Street Address 401 North Wabash Avenue
Building Function residential / hotel
Structural Material concrete
Start of Construction 2005
Global Ranking #11 tallest in the World
Regional Ranking #2 tallest in North America
National Ranking #2 tallest in United States
City Ranking #2 tallest in Chicago
Official Website www.trumpchicago.com
Height: Architectural 423.2 m
Height: Occupied 340.1 m
Height: To Tip 423.2 m
Floors Above Ground 98
Floors Below Ground 2
# of Elevators 27
Top Elevator Speed 8 m/s
Tower GFA 241,548 mē
Developer The Trump Organization
Design Architect Skidmore Owings & Merrill
Structural Engineer Skidmore Owings & Merrill
MEP Engineer WMA Consulting Engineers
Main Contractor Bovis Lend Lease Inc.
Material Suppliers Permasteelisa Group
Other Consultants KONE; RWDI; Dow Corning Corporation
The Trump International Hotel and Tower, also known as Trump Tower Chicago and Trump Tower, is a skyscraper condo-hotel in downtown Chicago, Illinois. The building, named after billionaire real estate developer Donald Trump, was designed by architect Adrian Smith of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Bovis Lend Lease built the 92-story structure, which reached a height of 423 m including its spire, its roof topping out at 360 m. It is adjacent to the main branch of the Chicago River, with a view of the entry to Lake Michigan beyond a series of bridges over the river.
The Atrium of the building
Trump announced in 2001 that the skyscraper would become the tallest building in the world, but after the September 11, 2001 terrorists attacks, he scaled back the building's plans, and its design underwent several revisions. When topped out in 2009, it became the second-tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, after another Chicago building, the Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower). Trump Tower Chicago surpassed the city's John Hancock Center as the building with the highest residence (apartment or condo) in the world, and held this title until the completion of the Burj Khalifa. As of 24 November 2012 it is the twelfth-tallest building in the world.
Trump Tower viewed from Fifth Avenue
The design of the building includes, from the ground up, retail space, a parking garage, a hotel, and condominiums. The 339-room hotel opened for business with limited accommodations and services on January 30, 2008. April 28 of that year marked the grand opening with full accommodation and services of hotel services. A restaurant on the 16th floor, named Sixteen, opened in early 2008 to favorable reviews. The building topped out in late 2008 and construction was completed in 2009. The hotel is one of four in Chicago with an elite four- or five-star rating and the building hosts a restaurant that is one of nine in Chicago with either a four- or five-star rating, according to the Forbes Travel Guide.
Design and architecture
The design of the building incorporates three setback features designed to provide visual continuity with the surrounding skyline, each reflecting the height of a nearby building. The first setback, on the east side of the building, aligns with the cornice line of the Wrigley Building to the east; the second, on the west side, aligns with River Plaza to the north and with the Marina City Towers to the west. The third setback, on the east side, relates to 330 North Wabash building (formerly known as IBM Plaza). However, some views distort the alignment of the second setback. The setbacks and rounded edges of the building combat vortex formation which may occur in the "Windy City". The body of the building is raised 9.1 m above the main Wabash entrance and 21 m above the Chicago River. The building uses clear low-emissivity coated glass and a curved wing-shaped polished stainless steel mullion system that projects 23 cm from the glass line. It incorporates a brushed stainless steel spandrel panels and clear anodized aluminum.
The building has 240,000 m2 of floor space, rises to 92 stories, and houses 486 luxury residential condominiums. These include studio apartments, a mixture of suites with one to four bedrooms, and five-bedroom penthouses. A 4,900 m2 riverfront park and riverwalk, along a 150 m space in the area adjacent to the building to the east, was opened in the first half of 2010. The park facilitates public assembly and entertainment activity while linking the building effectively with aquatic commuters.
The building surpassed the record for containing the world's highest residence above ground-level, which had been held since 1969 by the nearby John Hancock Center. Because the Trump Tower has both hotel condominiums and residential condominiums, it does not contest the record held by the 79-story The Torch in Dubai, which, at 337 meters , is the tallest all-residential building.
By January 2007 all three adult Trump children (Ivanka Trump, Donald Trump, Jr., and Eric Trump) were executives in the acquisitions and development division of the organization. By the time the Chicago Trump Tower's hotel opened in the building in January 2008, Donald Trump and his three adult children were in the spotlight, overseeing the construction.
Bovis Lend Lease, noted for work on Disneyland Paris, Petronas Towers, and the Time Warner Center, was the construction company. James McHugh Construction Co, the concrete subcontractor, implemented a comprehensive formwork for the construction of the building. At the completion of construction the building was the tallest formwork structure in the world,and follows in the footsteps of its neighbor, Marina City, as well as Chicago's Two Prudential Plaza, as past record holders.
Concrete moulding was used, because using a traditional ironwork structure would have required a building footprint that would have been too big for the property size, proportional to the height of the designed building. A steel frame would have had to be 7.6 m wider to have supported a building of this proportion. Concrete will counteract the force of wind with the force of gravity of the 330,000 t building. A new chemical process that leveraged more fluid liquid concrete facilitated pumping concrete up several hundred feet to the elevating construction site.Although previous technology limited formwork to 210 m, this technology permitted the pumping of concrete 520 m high.
The building is cantilevered into a section of 420 million-year-old limestone bedrock 34 m underground. It uses 1.2 m-wide stilt-like pillars that were drilled beneath the building. Every 9.1 m around its perimeter, steel-reinforced concrete was poured into these holes to form the structural support. On top of these caisson shafts and pillars, an 7,600 t concrete pad foundation was built to support the building's spine. The building has 241 caissons, and the majority of the caissons only descend 23 m into hard clay. However, 57 of them go an additional 11 m into the ground, including 1.8 m of bedrock. The concrete spine uses five I-beam-shaped walls and exterior columns, narrowing to two as the building rises. Each floor is separated by a concrete slab, and stainless steel, glass, and aluminum panels are attached to each floor. 45,000 t of reinforcing steel rebars support the hotel. The extensive use of concrete makes the building more fireproof. Of the $600 million construction budget, $130 million was earmarked for the James McHugh Construction Co, who handled the 140,000 m3 concrete-only portion of the job.
A close up view of a helicopter transporting the steeple of a building either to or from the top of the building
The component sections of the spire were delivered by helicopter
Two earlier business decisions by the Chicago Sun-Times led to substantial savings of time and money during the Trump Tower's construction. The original 1950s sea wall was built by the newspaper company to bomb-shelter thickness, to withstand a Cold War attack, and thus did not have to be broken down and rebuilt. Furthermore, the company decided in the 1970s to switch from petroleum-based to soy-based ink, which reduced ground pollution from the printing plant. This considerably reduced the costs and time for cleaning up the site prior to building anew.
On August 16, 2008, construction crews made the last major concrete pour to top off the Trump tower's concrete core, which was commemorated with an unofficial ceremony. To celebrate the milestone, a yellow tower crane raised a bucket full of concrete and an American flag to the rooftop of the skyscraper. Another ceremony occurred on August 19, when construction supervisors, structural engineers and company representatives from McHugh Construction made a minor concrete pour at the top of the Trump tower. Though Donald Trump was absent from both of these ceremonies, he, Donald Jr., Ivanka and Eric Trump attended the topping off party on September 24, 2008. Original plans called for the windows to be completed and the spire erected in October 2008. However, the spire installation was delayed through high winds in December 2008, and was finally completed on January 3, 2009.Kamin's critical opinion is that the spire is not aesthetically complementary.
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