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PostPosted: Mon Sep 13, 2021 9:52 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Lightning Protection System
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Electrical Engineering Requirements
Lightning Protection System
1     Lightning protection shall be provided for all buildings and tanks associated with phase.
2     It shall also, include control building extension.
3     Contractor shall provide calculations to establish justified design of system.
4     Both electronic and hard copies shall be submitted to company / client a part of   final documentation.

Lightning Protection System
1     A lightning rod (US, AUS) or lightning conductor (Uk) is a metal rod mounted on a structure and intended to protect structure from a lightning strike.
2     If lightning hits structure, it will preferentially strike rod and be conducted to ground through a wire, instead of passing through structure, where it could start a fire or cause electrocution.
3     Lightning rods are also, called finials, air terminals or strike termination devices.
4     In a lightning protection system, a lightning rod is a single component of system.
5     Lightning rod requires a connection to earth to perform its protective function.
6     Lightning rods come in many different forms, including hollow, solid, pointed, rounded, flat strips, or even bristle brush-like.
7     Main attribute common to all lightning rods is that they are all made of conductive materials, such as copper and aluminum.
8     Copper and its alloys are most common materials used in lightning protection.
9     A lightning protection system is designed to protect a structure from damage, due to lightning strikes by intercepting such strikes and safely passing their extremely high currents to ground.
10     A lightning protection system includes a network of air terminals, bonding conductors and ground electrodes designed to provide a low impedance path to ground for potential strikes.
11     Lightning protection systems are used to prevent lightning strike damage to structures.
12     Lightning protection systems mitigate fire hazard, which lightning strikes pose to structures.
13     A lightning protection system provides a low-impedance path for lightning current to lessen heating effect of current flowing through flammable structural materials.
14     If lightning travels through porous and water-saturated materials, these materials may literally explode, if their water content is flashed to steam by heat produced from high current.
15     This is why trees are often, shattered by lightning strikes.
16     Because of high energy and current levels associated with lightning (currents can be in excess of 150,000 a) and very rapid rise time of a lightning strike, no protection system can guarantee absolute safety from lightning.
17     Lightning current shall divide to follow every conductive path to ground and even divided current can cause damage. Secondary "side-flashes" can be enough to ignite a fire, blow apart brick, stone or concrete or injure occupants, within a structure or building. However, benefits of basic lightning protection systems have been evident for well over a century.
18      Laboratory-scale measurements of effects of [any lightning investigation research] do not scale to applications involving natural lightning. Field applications have mainly been derived from trial and error, based on best intended laboratory research of a highly complex and variable phenomenon.
19     Parts of a lightning protection system are air terminals (lightning rods or strike termination devices), bonding conductors, ground terminals (ground or "earthing" rods, plates or mesh) and all of connectors and supports to complete system.
20     Air terminals are typically arranged at or along upper points of a roof structure and are electrically bonded together by bonding conductors (called "down conductors" or "downleads"), which are connected by most direct route to one or more grounding or earthing terminals.
21     Connections to earth electrodes must not only have low resistance, but must have low self-inductance.
22     An example of a structure vulnerable to lightning is a wooden barn.
23     When lightning strikes barn, wooden structure and its contents may be ignited by heat generated by lightning current conducted through parts of structure.
24     A basic lightning protection system would provide a conductive path, between an air terminal and earth, so that most of lightning's current shall follow path of lightning protection system, with substantially less current traveling through flammable materials.
25     Originally, scientists believed that such a lightning protection system of air terminals and "downleads" directed current of lightning down into earth to be "dissipated".
26     However, high speed photography has clearly demonstrated that lightning is actually composed of both a cloud component and an oppositely charged ground component.
27     During "cloud-to-ground" lightning, these oppositely charged components usually "meet" somewhere in atmosphere well above earth to equalize previously unbalanced charges.
28     Heat generated as this electric current flows through flammable materials is hazard, which lightning protection systems attempt to mitigate by providing a low-resistance path for lightning circuit.
29     No lightning protection system can be relied upon to "contain" or "control" lightning completely (nor thus far, to prevent lightning strikes entirely), but they do seem to help immensely on most occasions of lightning strikes.
30     Steel framed structures can bond  structural members to earth to provide lightning protection. A metal flagpole with its foundation in earth is its own extremely simple lightning protection system. However, flag(s) flying from pole during a lightning strike may be completely incinerated.
31     Majority of lightning protection systems in use today are of traditional franklin design.
32     Fundamental principle used in franklin-type lightning protections systems is to provide a sufficiently low impedance path for lightning to travel through to reach ground, without damaging building.
33     This is accomplished by surrounding building in a kind of faraday cage.
34     A system of lightning protection conductors and lightning rods are installed on roof of building to intercept any lightning, before it strikes building.
35     A lightning arrester is a device, used on electric power systems and telecommunication systems to protect insulation and conductors of system from damaging effects of lightning.
36     Typical lightning arrester has a high-voltage terminal and a ground terminal.
37     In telegraphy and telephony, a lightning arrester is a device placed, where wires enter a structure, in order to prevent damage to electronic instruments within and ensuring safety of individuals near structures.
38     Smaller versions of lightning arresters, also called surge protectors are devices that are connected, between each electrical conductor in a power or communications system and ground.
39     They help prevent flow of normal power or signal currents to ground, but provide a path over which, high-voltage lightning current flows, bypassing connected equipment.
40     Arresters are used to limit rise in voltage, when a communications or power line is struck by lightning or is near to a lightning strike.
41     In overhead electric transmission systems, one or two lighter ground wires may be mounted to top of pylons, poles or towers not specifically used to send electricity through grid.
42     These conductors, often referred to "static", "pilot" or "shield" wires are designed to be point of lightning termination instead of high-voltage lines themselves.
43     These conductors are intended to protect primary power conductors from lightning strikes.
44     These conductors are bonded to earth, either through metal structure of a pole or tower, or by additional ground electrodes installed at regular intervals along line.
45     As a general rule, overhead power lines with voltages below 50 KV do not have a "static" conductor, but most lines carrying more than 50 KV do.
46     Ground conductor cable may also, support fibre optic cables for data transmission.
47     Older lines may use surge arresters, which insulate conducting lines from direct bonding with earth and may be used as low voltage communication lines.
48     If voltage exceeds a certain threshold, such as during a lightning termination to conductor, it "jumps" the insulators and passes to earth.
49     Protection of electrical substations is as varied as lightning rods themselves and is often proprietary to the electric company.
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suraj
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 13, 2021 9:54 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Lightning Protection System+Lightning Protection of Mast Radiators
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Electrical Engineering Requirements
Lightning Protection System
Lightning Protection of Mast Radiators
1     Radio mast radiators may be insulated from ground by a spark gap at base.
2     When lightning hits mast, it jumps this gap.
3     A small inductivity in feed line, between mast and tuning unit (usually one winding) limits voltage increase, protecting transmitter from dangerously high voltages
4     Transmitter must be equipped with a device to monitor antenna's electrical properties.
5     This is very important, as a charge could remain after a lightning strike, damaging gap or insulators.
6     Monitoring device switches off transmitter, when antenna shows incorrect behavior e.g. as a result of undesired electrical charge.
7     When transmitter is switched off, these charges dissipate.
8     Monitoring device makes several attempts to switch back on.
9     If after several attempts, antenna continues to show improper behavior, possibly as result of structural damage, transmitter remains switched off.
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 13, 2021 10:00 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Lightning Protection System+Lightning conductors and grounding precautions
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Lightning conductors and grounding precautions
1     Ideally, underground part of assembly should reside in an area of high ground conductivity.
2     If underground cable is able to resist corrosion well, it can be covered in salt to improve its electrical connection with ground.
3     While electrical resistance of lightning conductor, between air terminal and earth is of significant concern, inductive reactance of conductor could be more important.
4     For this reason, down conductor route is kept short and whatever curves have a large radius.
5     If these measures are not taken, lightning current may arc over a resistive or reactive obstruction that it encounters in conductor.
6     At very least, arc current shall damage lightning conductor and can easily find another conductive path, such as building wiring or plumbing and cause fires or other disasters. Grounding systems without low resistivity to ground can still be effective in protecting a structure from lightning damage.
7     When ground soil has poor conductivity is very shallow or non-existent, a grounding system can be augmented by adding ground rods, counterpoise (ground ring) conductor, cable radials projecting away from building or a concrete building's reinforcing bars can be used for a ground conductor (Ufer ground).
8     These additions, while still not reducing resistance of system in some instances, shall allow [dispersion] of lightning into earth, without damage to structure.
9     Additional precautions must be taken to prevent side-flashes, between conductive objects on or in structure and lightning protection system.
10     Surge of lightning current through a lightning protection conductor shall create a voltage difference, between it and any conductive objects that are near it.
11     This voltage difference can be large enough to cause a dangerous side-flash (spark), between two that can cause significant damage, especially on structures housing flammable or explosive materials.
12     Most effective way to prevent this potential damage is to ensure electrical continuity, between lightning protection system and whatever objects susceptible to a side-flash.
13     Effective bonding shall allow voltage potential of two objects to rise and fall simultaneously, thereby eliminating whatever risk of a side-flash
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 13, 2021 10:10 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Lightning protection system design
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Lightning protection system design
1     Considerable material is used to make up lightning protection systems, so it is prudent to consider carefully, where an air terminal shall provide greatest protection.
2     Historical understanding of lightning, from statements made by ben franklin, assumed that each lightning rod protected a cone of 45 degrees.
3     This has been found to be unsatisfactory for protecting taller structures, as it is possible for lightning to strike side of a building.
4     A modeling system based on a better understanding of termination targeting of lightning, called rolling sphere method was developed by dr tibor horváth.
5     It has become standard by which traditional franklin rod systems are installed.
6     To understand this requires knowledge of how lightning 'moves'.
7     As step leader of a lightning bolt jumps toward ground, it steps toward grounded objects nearest its path.
8     Maximum distance that each step may travel is called the critical distance and is proportional to electric current.
9     Objects are likely to be struck, if they are nearer to leader than this critical distance.
10     It is standard practice to approximate sphere's radius as 46 m near ground.
11     An object outside critical distance is unlikely to be struck by leader, if there is a solidly grounded object within critical distance.
12     Locations that are considered safe from lightning can be determined by imagining a leader's potential paths, as a sphere that travels from cloud to ground.
13     For lightning protection, it suffices to consider all possible spheres, as they touch potential strike points.
14     To determine strike points, consider a sphere rolling over terrain.
15     At each point, a potential leader position is simulated.
16     Lightning is most likely to strike, where sphere touches ground.
17     Points that sphere cannot roll across and touch are safest from lightning.
18     Lightning protectors should be placed, where they shall prevent sphere from touching a structure. A weak point in most lightning diversion systems is in transporting captured discharge from lightning rod to ground, though.
19     Lightning rods are typically installed around perimeter of flat roofs or along peaks of sloped roofs at intervals of 6.1 m or 7.6 m, depending on height of rod.  When a flat roof has dimensions greater than 15 m by 15 m, additional air terminals shall be installed in middle of roof at intervals of 15 m or less in a rectangular grid pattern.
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 13, 2021 10:46 pm    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+SHE Reply with quote

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PostPosted: Tue Sep 14, 2021 10:30 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Power System Studies
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Power System Studies
1     Power system studies are essential tools in understanding expected performance of an electrical system and determining severity of a fault or other unexpected event.
2     Data contained within a power system study can be used to safeguard workers by calculating level of personal protective equipment involved and reduce damage to equipment by optimizing fault clearing capabilities of protective devices.
3     There are many different types of power system studies, each with respectively its own special purpose and calculation method.
4     Each analysis is unique to a particular power system.
5     Certain changes within system can affect results of analysis and requires recalculation.
Following studies covering entire plant network shall be conducted.
1     Studies shall be conducted in accordance to company / client specification and harmonic requirements.
2     Studies shall be contracted for subletting to a company / client approved study consultant.
3     All studies shall be carried out / conducted on Windows based CYME package, except insulation coordination study, which should be conducted, using PSCD EMTP software.
4     VSDS vendor documentation shall also, be conducted, using CYME software package for analysis and reporting.
5     Other Specialized software may be used for insulation coordination studies, but shall be subject to prior approval of company / client.
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 14, 2021 10:44 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Equipment Protection, Selective, Compromised
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Selective Coordination Equipment Protection
1     Determines protective device types, characteristics, settings or ampere ratings, which provide selective coordination, equipment protection and correct interrupting ratings for full range of available short circuit currents at points of application for each overcurrent protective device.

Compromised Coordination Equipment Protection
1     Determines protective device types, characteristics, settings or ampere ratings, which permit ranges of non-coordination of overcurrent protective devices.
2     In this case, overcurrent protective device coordination may be compromised, due to overcurrent protective devices selected or already installed or in order to achieve protection of equipment that is selected or already installed.
3     Clearly note, about which equipment have insufficient ratings
4     Objective of compromised coordination is to maximize coordination of overcurrent protective devices to extent possible, based on type of devices.
5     Determine protective device characteristics, settings or sizes, which provide a balance between equipment protection and selective device operation that is optimum for electrical system.
6     Information contained within a coordination study includes a system one-line diagram along with Time-current curves, selective coordination ratios of fuses or selective coordination tables of circuit breakers, demonstrating coordination of overcurrent protective devices to the scope.
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 14, 2021 11:09 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Load Flow Studies+Short Circuit Studies
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Load Flow Studies
1     Load flow studies shall be performed to validate chosen equipment ratings (continuous).
2     It shall include motor starting studies.

Short Circuit Studies
1     Short circuit studies shall be performed to validate chosen equipment (short time) ratings.
2     Actual fault levels at 220KV + plant substation shall be made available, during detail design.
3     Fault level details shall be coordinated with company / client during detail design.
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 14, 2021 11:10 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Harmonic Studies
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Harmonic Studies
1     As harmonic levels are in excess of stipulation mentioned within specifications, contractor shall install necessary filters to mitigate harmonic levels to specified limits.
2     Following successful plant completion, contractor shall perform extensive site verification tests to prove that limits imposed have not been exceeded.
3     In an electric power system, a harmonic of a voltage or current waveform is a sinusoidal wave, whose frequency is an integer multiple of fundamental frequency.
4     Harmonic frequencies are produced by action of non-linear loads, such as rectifiers, discharge lighting or saturated electric machines.
5     They are frequent causes of power quality problems and can result in increased equipment and conductor heating, misfiring in variable speed drives and torque pulsations in motors and generators.
6     Harmonics are usually classified by two different criteria: type of signal (voltage or current) and order of harmonic (even, odd, triplen, or non-triplen odd); in a three-phase system, they can be further classified, according to their phase sequence (positive, negative, zero).
7     In a normal alternating current power system, current varies sinusoidally at a specific frequency, usually 50 or 60 hertz.
8     When a linear time-invariant electrical load is connected to system, it draws a sinusoidal current at same frequency, as voltage (though usually not in phase with the voltage).
9     Current harmonics are caused by non-linear loads.
10     When a non-linear load, such as a rectifier is connected to system, it draws a current that is not necessarily sinusoidal.
11     Current waveform distortion can be quite complex, depending on type of load and its interaction with other components of system.
12     Regardless of how complex current waveform becomes, Fourier series transform makes it possible to deconstruct complex waveform into a series of simple sinusoids, which start at power system fundamental frequency and occur at integer multiples of fundamental frequency.
13     In power systems, harmonics are defined as positive integer multiples of fundamental frequency. Thus, third harmonic is third multiple of fundamental frequency.
14     Harmonics in power systems are generated by non-linear loads.
15     Semiconductor devices like transistors, IGBTs, MOSFETS, diodes etc. are all non-linear loads.
16     Further examples of non-linear loads include, common office equipment, such as computers and printers, fluorescent lighting, battery chargers and also, variable-speed drives.
17     Electric motors do not normally contribute significantly to harmonic generation.
18     Both motors and transformers shall however create harmonics, when they are over-fluxed or saturated.
19     Non-linear load currents create distortion in pure sinusoidal voltage waveform, supplied by utility and this may result in resonance.
20     Even harmonics do not normally exist in power system, due to symmetry, between positive and negative halves of a cycle.
21     Further, if waveforms of three phases are symmetrical, harmonic multiples of three are suppressed by delta (Δ) connection of transformers and motors, as described below.
22     If we focus for example on only third harmonic, we can see how all harmonics with a multiple of three behaves in powers systems.

23     3rd Order Harmonic Addition
24     Power is supplied by a three phase system, where each phase is 120 degrees apart.
25     This is done for two reasons:
a     Mainly because three-phase generators and motors are simpler to construct, due to constant torque developed across three phase phases;
b     Secondly, if three phases are balanced, they sum to zero and size of neutral conductors can be reduced or even omitted in some cases.
26     Both these measures results in significant costs savings to utility companies.
27     However, balanced third harmonic current shall not add to zero in neutral.
28     As seen in figure, 3rd harmonic shall add constructively across three phases.
29     This leads to a current in neutral wire at three times fundamental frequency, which can cause problems, if system is not designed for it, (i.e. conductors sized only for normal operation.)
30     To reduce effect of third order harmonics, delta connections are used as attenuators or third harmonic shorts as current circulates in delta connection, instead of flowing in neutral of a Y-Δ transformer (wye connection).
31     Voltage harmonics are mostly caused by current harmonics.
32     Voltage provided by voltage source shall be distorted by current harmonics, due to source impedance.
33     If source impedance of voltage source is small, current harmonics shall cause only small voltage harmonics.
34     It is typically case that voltage harmonics are indeed small compared to current harmonics.
35     For that reason, voltage waveform can usually be approximated by fundamental frequency of voltage.
36     If this approximation is used, current harmonics produce no effect on real power transferred to load.
37     An intuitive way to see this comes from sketching voltage wave at fundamental frequency and overlaying a current harmonic with no phase shift (in order to more easily observe the following phenomenon).
38     What can be observed is that for every period of voltage, there is equal area above horizontal axis and below current harmonic wave, as there is below axis and above current harmonic wave.
39     This means that the average real power contributed by current harmonics is equal to zero. However, if higher harmonics of voltage are considered then current harmonics do make a contribution to real power transferred to load.
40     A set of three line (or line-to-line) voltages in a balanced three-phase (three-wire or four-wire) power system cannot contain harmonics, whose frequency is an integer multiple of frequency of third harmonics (i.e. harmonics of order ), which includes triplen harmonics (i.e. harmonics of order ).
41     This occurs because otherwise Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) would be violated: such harmonics are in phase, so their sum for three phases is not zero, however KVL requires sum of such voltages to be zero, which requires sum of such harmonics to be also, zero. With same argument, a set of three line currents in a balanced three-wire three-phase power system cannot contain harmonics, whose frequency is an integer multiple of frequency of third harmonics; but a four-wire system can, and triplen harmonics of line currents would constitute neutral current.
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 14, 2021 11:14 am    Post subject: Field Engineering Building+General+Soil+FIDICSilver-Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirem Reply with quote

Buildings Practice Facilities Plants-Petrochemicals+Quality+Design General Specification+Electrical Engineering Requirements+Protection Coordination Studies
Chapter 8
Building Design Concept
Design General Specification

Protection Coordination Studies
1     Establish relay settings for all protection relays, which shall include protection settings at all LLCCS
2     This time-sequence of operation is called “coordination of protective devices.”
3     A protection-coordination study is done to determine trip settings of each protective device in power system, so that maximum protection with minimum interruption is provided for all faults that may happen in system.
What is Protection Coordination Study?
1     Electrical protection coordination study is a study by analysis to determine setting of protection relay and circuit breaker.
2     Its main purpose is to obtain an optimal compromise, between protection and selectivity.
3     Study includes, determining fault clearing time and coordination of upstream electrical protective equipment.
4     Proper coordination and disruption clearing times can help reduce damage to electrical equipment and protect workers from harm.
5     Study and analysis of coordination of protection equipment is one part of electric power systems study.
6     Protection coordination analysis studies is carried out, after a load flow study and short circuit study is carried out
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